BAT Reference Documents

Please see following links for Best Available Techniques Reference Documents concerning different aspects of production in the metal finishing industry. They are provided by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre:


  • Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for Iron and Steel Production

    This BREF covers the processes involved in the production of iron and steel in an integrated works as well as the production of steel in electric arc furnace steelworks. The main operations covered are loading, unloading and handling of bulk raw materials, blending and mixing of raw materials, coke production, sintering and pelletisation of iron ore, the production of molten iron by the blast furnace route, including slag processing, the production and refining of steel using the basic oxygen process, including upstream ladle desulphurisation, downstream ladle metallurgy and slag processing, the production of steel by electric arc furnaces, including downstream ladle metallurgy and slag processing and continuous casting.


  • Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for Energy Efficiency

    This document addresses energy efficiency improvement in industrial installations by giving generic guidance on how to approach, assess, implement and deal with energy efficiency related issues along with corresponding permit and supervising procedures.


  • Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Smitheries and Foundries Industry

    This BREF includes installations for i) the processing of ferrous metals as smitheries, ii) ferrous metal foundries and, iii) installations for the smelting, including the alloyage, of non-ferrous metals, including recovered products (refining, foundry casting, etc.). From a process point of view, the following foundry process steps are covered: pattern making, storage and handling of raw materials, melting and metal treatment, mould and core production, and moulding techniques, casting or pouring and cooling, shake-out, finishing, and heat treatment.


  • Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Non Ferrous Metals Industries

    This BREF covers the techniques for the production of both primary and secondary non-ferrous metals. The production of 42 non-ferrous metals and the production of ferro alloys are addressed. Ten groups of metals with similar production methods are dealt with in the document: Copper and its alloys, Tin and Beryllium, Aluminium and its alloys, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium, Antimony and Bismuto etc., precious metals, Mercury, Refractory metals, e.g. Chromium, Wolfram, Vanadium, Tantalium, Niobium, Rhenium, Molybdenum, ferro alloys, e.g. IronChromium, IronSilicon, IronMn, SiliconManganese, IronTitanium, IronMolybdenum, IronVanadium, IronBoron, Alkali and alkaline earth metals, Sodium, Potassium, Lithium, Strontium, Calcium, Magnesium and Titanium, Nickel and Cobalt, carbon and graphite electrodes. The production of carbon and graphite anodes is included because of the production of anodes at some aluminium smelters as an integral part of the production process.


  • Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Surface Treatment using Organic Solvents

    This BREF addresses installations for the surface treatment of substances, objects or products using organic solvents, in particular for dressing, printing, coating, degreasing, waterproofing, sizing, painting, cleaning or impregnating. The activities addressed are: printing (by heatset web offset, flexography and packaging gravure, publication gravure), painting and other coating activities (winding wires, cars, trucks, buses, trains, agricultural and construction equipment, ships and yachts, aircraft, wood and mirrors, furniture, metal coil, metal packaging, and other metal and plastic goods), waterproofing (by painting and wood preservation), adhesive application (in the manufacture of abrasives and adhesive tapes), cleaning and degreasing in conjunction with other surface treatment activities, impregnation for the preservation of wood.


  • Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Surface Treatment of Metals and Plastics

    This BREF includes installations for the surface treatment of metals and plastics using an electrolytic or chemical process. Many installations operate a mixture of small and large production lines, and a mixture of electrolytic and chemical processes, as well as associated activities. Thus all processes, irrespective of the scale on which they are carried out, were considered in the information exchange. In practical terms, the electrolytic and chemical processes currently used are water-based. Directly associated activities are also described.


  • Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ferrous Metals Processing Industry

    This BREF is closely linked to the BREF on production of iron and steel which covers the iron and steel production to the casting process. This BREF includes activities for the processing of semi-finished products (i.e. ingots, slabs, blooms and billets) obtained from ingot casting or continuous casting, like hot rolling, cold rolling, drawing, hot dip metal coating and the related pre- and post- treatment of the shaped steel products.The main operational steps regarding continuous processing that are covered are: reheating and heat treatment of input materials, like slabs, blooms, billets and ingots; surface rectification and preparation processes: scarfing, grinding, descaling, degreasing, pickling; shaping of steel: rough milling, hot rolling, cold rolling, drawing; processes yielding special material or product qualities: annealing, temper rolling/skin pass rolling; hot dip metal coating and finishing. Regarding batch hot dip coating of fabricated steel products, the following operational steps are addressed: surface preparation of fabricated steel: degreasing, rinsing, pickling, fluxing, drying; coating with molten metal; post treatment/finishing: cooling, greasing.



ACIDLOOP is a 4-year project (2012-2016) supported by the European Union (EU) under the SWITCH Asia Programme. This programme emphasizes sustainable consumption and production in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). ACIDLOOP is targeted specifically at the Indian metal finishing industry.  It aims to introduce technology innovation for acid recovery as well as resource efficiency that would lead to improved environmental quality and combat pollution.  The activities is taking place in various locations in northern, western and southern India.


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